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World Geography Digest 18 Feb 2019

Demography: The study of human populations, including how they change due to births, deaths, aging, and migration.

Life expectancy: The average age to which a person in a given population can expect to live.

European Union: A group of 28 countries working together on shared issues, once a decision or vote is held. All countries must follow the decision that was made

Trade bloc: A group of countries that work together to promote trade with one another

Supranational cooperation: Countries give up some control of their affairs as they work together to achieve shared goals

Transboundary pollution: Pollution that starts in one country and crosses boundaries into other countries

Acid rain: Rain that can damage the environment because it contains acid from factory smoke, car exhaust and burning fossil fuels

Ethnic group: A group of people in a country who shares a unique culture and identity

Nationalism: Feeling of loyalty and pride towards ones nation or ethnic group

Marginal Land: Land that is not well suited for growing crops.

Desertification: The process by which land becomes more and more dry until it turns into a desert.

Gender-based division of labor: The division of work into two categories based on gender or whether you are male or female

Drought: An unusually long period in which little or no rain falls

Mantle: The middle layer of earth that lies between the core and lithosphere

Magma: Molten, or liquid, rock that lies beneath earth's crust

Tectonic Movement: The movement of plates below earth's surface

Lava: Molten, or liquid, rock that flows out of a volcano

Micro- enterprise: A very small business

Nonrenewable resource: A resource that takes so long to form that it can't be replaced. Oil, which takes millions of years to form, is such a resource.

Renewable resource: A resource that can't be used up or that can be replaced quickly as it is used up. Sunlight is a renewable resource that cannot be used up. Wood is a renewable resource that can be replaced by planting more trees.

Water stress: The condition that occurs when people do not have enough clean, fresh water to meet their everyday needs

Salinization: The buildup of salt in soil or water

Monsoon: A strong seasonal wind

Outsource: To hire someone outside a company to do work that was once done inside the company. Information technology has made it possible to outsource jobs to businesses in other countries.

Comparative advantage: The ability of one country to produce a good or provide a service at a lower cost or more effectively than another country

Acclimatize: The process of adjusting to lower oxygen levels at high elevation.

Zero population growth: A condition in which the population of a country does not grow but remains stable. This condition comes about when the birth rate plus immigration equals the death rate plus emigration.

Rate of natural increase: The annual rate of population growth. This percentage is calculated by subtracting the death rate from the birth rate. It does not include people moving into or out of a country.

Arable Land: Land that is suitable for farming

Deposition: The process by which rocks, sand and sediment are deposited by the forces of erosion

River Basin: The area drained by a river and its tributaries

Lake Tana: Source of the Blue Nile

Purpose of the Aswan High Dam: To control flooding by regulating the flow of the river and supply water for irrigation throughout the year

Benefits of hydroelectric dams:

  • Recreation
  • Flood control
  • Water storage
  • Irrigation
  • Electrical generation

How oases are created:

  • By a spring bubbling up to the surface
  • Rainwater pooling in a low spot
  • Artificially by humans

Causes of desertification:

  • Drought
  • Depletion of soil through the growing of cash crops
  • Deforestation

Desertification most threatens: Marginal lands

In Africa, MEN or WOMEN are better educated and earn more money that women?: Men

Causes of poverty in Africa:

  • Disease
  • Drought
  • Civil War

Ethnic groups of Nigeria:

  • Hausa-Fulani (29%)
  • Igbo (18%)
  • Yoruba (21%)
  • Other (32%)


What is the important legacy of British rule in Nigeria?: Cultural Conflict

What is the most important economic activity in the Niger River Delta?: Oil Production

Apartheid: The former official South African policy of separating people according to race; it gave most of the political and economic power to whites

Apartheid ended, what happened to the distribution of political power in South Africa?: It shifted. African National Congress (ANC) became South Africa's most powerful political party. 

Primate city: The largest and most important city in a country; has a least twice the population of the next largest city; it is the center of power and national culture

What physical feature are most primate cities located by?: Body of water

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC): Purpose is to ensure a steady supply of oil and a steady income

Where is Mount Everest located?: Nepal's Sagarmatha National Park

What is significant about Mount Everest?: it is the tallest mountain in the world

What physical feature in Japan has most affected population distribution?: Mountains

Terracing: The creation of flat areas on mountain slopes for the purpose of farming.

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