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Prehistoric India

The time of prehistoric man is believed to be 3000 BC before the origin of human. This was the earliest time of human life and his life style was not even more developed; there is no more written evidence regarding this period. Archaeological evidence is used to study prehistoric times.

Under the prehistoric period, stone age, copper periods occur. India has many cultures in prehistoric times.


Stone Age (Stone Age)

Stone Age refers to the time when humans were heavily dependent on stones, they used to be hunted by stone tools, habitats in stone caves and fire from stones. This is the earliest time period of human development. Stone Age has been divided into three main phases - Palaeolithic period, Middle stone period and Neolithic period. In this lesson, we will make a detailed study of the Stone Age.


Paleolithic Period

Palaeolithic period is the period of time in which man started making stone tools. Remains of Palaeolithic period in India have been found in Kurnool, Karnataka, Odisha, Rajasthan of Tamil Nadu and Bhimbetka of Madhya Pradesh. India has received very few relics of the Palaeolithic period.

The estimated time duration of the Palaeolithic period is 10 million to 10 thousand BC. Initially, human activities were started, its evidence in India has been received from Sohan, Belan and Narmada Valley. The discovery of the Palaeolithic culture in India is attributed to Robert Bruce Fruit. In 1863, Robert Bruce Fruit discovered important research in this regard. Human activities were quite limited in the Palaeolithic period, it was dependent on hunting and food collection for self-feeding and residing in caves. The people of this period were of Negrito race.

In India, an important evidence related to the Palaeolithic period has been obtained as a remnant of ostrich from a place called "Patte" of Maharashtra. Such evidence has been received from most parts of the Indian subcontinent, there is no evidence related to the Ganga's vast maiden and the Indus river basin from the Palaeolithic period. The use of stone made of stone by humans in the Palaeolithic period was in vogue, the ax was one of the earliest tools.

The Palaeolithic period is divided into several parts based on the variations arising over time, which is as follows:

  • Low Palaeolithic
  • Middle Palaeolithic
  • Upper Palaeolithic

 

The following archaeological periods

It is the oldest part of the Palaeolithic period, it started approximately 3.3 million years ago, when the stone was first used for making the tool. In this period, core equipment was used, these devices were made from quartzite stones. The climate of the lower Palaeolithic period was cold. Evidence of the following Palaeolithic periods in India are found in Sohan Valley, Belan Valley, Bhimbetka etc. In this period Oldowan variety of tools were used first, these tools are used to indicate the use of Africa, South Asia and the Middle East.


Middle archaeological period

It is the second part of the Palaeolithic period; its time is 30 thousand years before its time of approximately 3 million years. In this period, there was a lot of change in the tools made of stones, the tools were smaller and sharp than before. In India, the Bhimbetka and the Narmada river valley region are related to this period, evidence of the central Palaeolithic tools in these areas has been received. This period is also known as Viking culture, because in this period different types of panels were used, it is the head, piercing, piercing etc. These tools were being constructed along with quartzites as well as Jesper. During this period, there was a great development in the behaviour of human beings, in this time the evidence of burial of dead was also found. The rise of religious ideology is estimated by archaeologists in this period.


High Calculation Period

The high Palaeolithic period is the last part of the Palaeolithic period, this period is between 10,000 thousand years ago from approximately 50 thousand years ago. In this period, the home of the modern form of human being came into existence and the human behaviour changed greatly. Humans started residing in stone-built homes. In this period, the stones of the stones of the stones are also used. In India, Chotanagpur Plateau region, Central India, Kurnool and Gujarat are related to this period. Evidence of the construction of cave ghati painting and other art works has been found since this period. The first signs of fishing by humans are found in the Blombos cave of South Africa. In this period, the stones of the stones of the stones are also used.


Middle Stone Age (Mesolithic Period)

The period of Middle Palaeolithic period in India is considered to be 10,000 to 6,000 BC. The Middle Stone Age began after the Palaeolithic period, it is the period between Palaeolithic and Neolithic period. During this period, there was a considerable change in the lifestyle of human beings, the process of collecting food by humans was initiated in this period. The size and type of tools also changed considerably, wood used to catch the tools, this new tool Were sharper and sharper. In this period there are indications of early farming and animal husbandry, evidence of early farming in India meet in Bagore of Rajasthan and Adamapur in Madhya Pradesh.

During this period there is evidence of human settlements, human life was quite organized. He now lives in a permanent residence rather than the caves, there are indications in Sarai Nahar Rai located in Pratapgarh district of Uttar Pradesh in India. These settlements were usually located near the water source. In Bhimbetka cave situated in Raisen district of Madhya Pradesh, there are evidence of medial stone carving painting, these pictures have the highest pictures of deer. In the Middle Palaeolithic period, arrows and command were invented, during this time humans hunted animals and collected food items.


New Stone Age (Neolithic Period)

The period of Neolithic Period is between 10 thousand years to 2500 BC, this time period is different at different places. The location related to the Neolithic period in South Asia is located in Haryana's Bhirrana and Mehrgarh, its estimated time is between 7570 and 6200 BC. With this, evidence of farming and animal husbandry of wheat and tide is found in the Kachhi region of Baluchistan province of Pakistan, this evidence dates from 6500 to 5500 BC.

In the year 1860, Le Mesurier received the tools of Neolithic stone from the Tons River Valley region of Uttar Pradesh. In this period agriculture was the main business. Remains of deer, sheep, goat and pigs are found in Mehrgarh of Haryana. The period of Neolithic period in South India is between 6500 BC and 1400 BC. This period started in Tamil Nadu after Karnataka.

In the Neolithic period, the life of man was organized to a limit, he used to live in a permanent place of residence, during this period, there was a house built of clandestine clay. It was round or rectangular. In a graveyard in excavation in Mehrgarh, the remains of goats were found with the deceased. In Jammu and Kashmir, the places named Burjhome  and Gufkral are related to the Neolithic period. In Burjhome , there are tools made of bone and stone, which makes it clear that the inhabitants were dependent on hunting and agriculture. In Burjhome, with the body of a person, his dog also finds signs of being buried in the grave. Gufkral is located near the place called Traal in Kashmir. Equipment manufactured by horn horns in places called Bihar's Chirand, have been obtained while evidence of residence of Karnataka has been found. Gufkral is located near the place called Traal in Kashmir.


Tamra Pashan period (Chalcolithic Period)

After the Neolithic period the Tamra Pashan period begins. The use of metals in the Tamra Pashan period began. Along with stone tools, copper tools were used for the first time in this period.

After the end of the Neolithic period, the Tamra Pashan period has started, as is known by the name. In this period copper made tools came into being. In this period the use of metals began and the first used metal copper was. For this reason, the name of this period was of Tamra Pashan period. During this time many cultures came into existence, due to the use of copper, these cultures are called copper-colored cultures. There was considerable change in agriculture during the Tamra Pashan period, during this period wheat, paddy, pulses etc. were cultivated. Most of the remains of crops in Navdatoli of Maharashtra have been received, it is the largest rural place associated with Tamra Pashan, which is excavated by archaeologists.

There was a great development of art and crafts during the Tamra Pashan period, during which artefacts of elephant teeth, art works of terracotta and other artefacts were constructed. Mother goddess was worshiped during the Tamra Pashan period and bull was considered a religious symbol. The use of painted embankment was first introduced in the Tamra Pashan period.

The cultures that emerged during this period and the cultures used by copper are said to be Chalcolithic cultures, the following is a brief description of some of the monomeric cultures: -


Malwa culture    

The estimated time of Malwa culture is 1700 BC to 1200 BC, in this culture the use of Malwa was very popular in this culture, it was the best in the mammal coconut culture.


Jorwe culture 

The time of Jorwe culture dates from 1400 to 700 BC, this culture was rural, it was limited urbanization in its Daimabad and Inamgaon settlements. The biggest place in this culture was the daily prayer. Inamgaon was busted and it was surrounded by a ditch. During the excavation, the ruins of the 5-room house were found in this culture.


Ahar culture

The date of Ahar culture is from 2100 to 1800 BC, it is also known as constellation. In Ahar culture, people lived in stone-built homes. Gilund was the center of these cultures. Ahar has received axes, bangles and sheets etc. All these items are made from copper.


Kayastha culture

The period of Kayastha culture is from 2100 to 1800 BC. In the Kayastha culture, defeat of bullets has been achieved with precious stones such as Statyte and Carnelian. On the basis that the people of Tamarpashan were aware of spinning and jewellery art, charkha and sorrows from Malwa, the necklaces of cotton yarn and kayat from Maharashtra were obtained from the yarn and silk threads from Maharashtra.

In addition to the above cultures, Rangpur culture existed from 1500 to 1200 BC. Prabhas culture was in existence from 1800 to 1200 BC and Savald culture from 2100 to 1800 BC.


Megalithic culture

The tombs of the stone were called Mahaparan, in which the dead were buried. This practice was prevalent in the Deccan, south India, north-eastern India and Kashmir. There were some graves under the ground and some over land. Era and red etiquettes have been received from some graves. The bodies of the dead were left for the food of wild animals, after which the remaining bodies of the bones were performed. In India, the remains of the Mahaparthi Samadhi have been obtained from Brahmagiri, Adichannul, Maski, Puduko and Chingleput.

 

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